ART OF ARABIC CALIOGRAPHY


The Language and The Script Arabic belongs to the group of Semitic alphabetical scripts in which mainly the consonants are represented in writing, while the markings of vowels (using diacritics) is optional. The earliest-known alphabet to mankind was the North Semitic, which developed around 1700 B.C. in Palestine and Syria. It consisted of 22 consonant…

AL BIRUNI’S MEASUREMENT ON THE EARTH


Introduction  Abu Rayhan (Muhammad ibn Ahmad) al-Biruni was born in Kath, capital of Khwarezm (the region of the Amu Darya delta), in modern Khiva, on 973 Sept 5 (362-12-03 AH), and died in Ghazni, Khorasan, on 1048 Dec 13 (440-07-04 AH). [1] He was a well-travelled Persian sage who spoke fluent Persian, Arabic, Turkish, Sanskrit,…