NATIONALISM SINCE THE DISMANTLEMENT OF THE KHILAFAH STATE IN 1924


 

The end of Islamic rule in 1924 created many artificial Muslim states that used nationalism as the basis for their existence. However, these states were far from the ‘independence’ that their creators fought for against the Uthmani Khilafah. Indeed, the promises of independence by the West were outright lies and in reality, it was a vicious trap that the Muslim fell in.

The real intent of the West was to colonise the Muslim world culturally, but when the Islamic State came within the reach of their claws, they settled for nothing less than the physical invasion of Muslim Land. This they enshrined in Article 22 of the League of Nations after the 1st World War –

“Certain communities formerly belonging to the Turkish Empire have reached a stage of their development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognised subject to the rendering of administrative advice and assistance by a mandatory, until such time as they are able to stand alone.” 1

Naturally, the ‘administrative advice’ had to be taken by the newly formed nationalistic states, which according to Britain and France meant nothing short of invasion. Britain took over Iraq, Palestine and Transjordan, while France took Syria and Lebanon. All that was left of Sharif Hussain’s ‘independent Arab state’, known as the Kingdom of Hijaz, was absorbed into what is now Saudi Arabia in 1925.

It can be seen, therefore, that despite the creation of many nationalistic states in the Muslim world, Muslims still lag behind rest of world. Although Muslim countries are no longer colonies of the West, the stagnation that we have suffered is so severe that we have literally become economic slaves to the West, which is far worse.

Attempts have been made since then to revive the Muslims but none of them have succeeded. Nationalism has left a trail of failure in the Muslim world. Some examples of failed attempts to revive the Muslims based on nationalism are presented below.

 

Egypt

Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt is a classical example of such failure. Nasser came to power in 1954 and began to propagate his vision for Egypt. In his book The Philosophy of Revolution he outlines the three main roles of Egypt as the leader of the Arab world, the Muslim world and of the black African nations struggling for independence. Nasser’s hope of uniting the Arabs primarily hinged around Arab nationalism. He imagined that the Arabs would unite simply because they had a common language, dress and history. However, Nasser did manage to arouse Arab nationalism to the extent never seen before. The nationalisation of the Suez Canal in 1956 and the merger between Egypt and Syria in 1958 to create the United Arab Republic, bringing together two of the most strategic countries in the Middle East, further boosted his call of ‘Arabism’.

The call for ‘Arabism’, however, was also accompanied by reckless socialist economic policies that crippled the country. Also, as the Ummah learnt later, Nasser was nothing more than a pawn in the struggle between Britain and America in the Middle East. Although Nasser was seen to be publicly backed by the former Soviet Union, in reality he was an agent of America 2.

The breakup of the United Arab Republic in 1961, and the triumph of Israel in the 1967 war, when it captured Sinai from Egypt, the Golan Heights from Syria and the West Bank from Jordan, put an end to Nasser’s ‘Arabism’. This great nationalistic experiment had failed and to this day the Arab world is still divided into many states.

 

Turkey

Turkey, being the seat of the ‘Uthmani Khilafah, is one of the countries that was deeply affected by nationalism. The vision of Mustapha Kamal to forge a nation based on nationalism did materialise but it failed to progress in any substantial way. Neither the nationalistic policies of Kamal’s Republican People’s Party in the past, nor those of the secular Motherland Party or the Socialist Democratic Populist Party now, are ever going to return Turkey to its former glory. Instead, Turkey is gradually slipping towards civil strife as Kurdish nationalism takes root.

Kamal’s attempted revival based on Turkish nationalism has left Turkey in the cold. The area which was once honoured as the capital of the leading state of the world, the Islamic State, has now become the diseased state, left for nowhere; it is not accepted by the Europeans nor by the Middle East. Nationalism has brought nothing but humiliation for Turkey, yet despite this, the Turkish government still persists with Turkish nationalism.

 

Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States

Saudi Arabia and the various states in the Gulf reflect a classical case of nationalism that was nurtured by the West, especially Britain. The powerful tribes were mobilised from these areas against the ‘Uthmani Khilafah through financial deals and promises of independent states.

The British first used Sharif Hussain and his sons Faisal and ‘Adbullah to revolt against the Khilafah. These revolts were instigated through the assistance of the famous British agent T. E. Lawrence 3, who was trying to harass the Islamic State’s forces and disrupt their communications on the right flank of General Allenby’s army advancing from Egypt during 1917. However, when Sharif later fell out of favour with the British, they replaced him with ‘Abd al-Aziz ibn Saud, who was also being financed by the British in his struggle to gain control.

By the end of 1927, the Saud family had managed to secure control of most of the Arabian peninsular, and in the same year, a treaty was signed with the British who gave the family complete authority in return for the Saud’s recognition of British suzerainty over the Gulf Sheikhdoms of Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Oman. In 1932, Arabian peninsular was named Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Since then the Saud family has kept a very tight control of the area, establishing the authority on a tribalistic structure. The entire government is run by the members of the Saud family, which is currently in excess of five thousand.

As for Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Oman, Britain had installed its agents as rulers even before the demise of the Islamic State in 1924. Al-Said family signed treaties with Britain in 1891, al-Sabah of Kuwait signed in 1899, al-Thani family followed suit in 1915 and various local rulers of United Arab Emirates also followed the same pattern.

The installation of these families as rulers by the British returned the Arabian peninsular to the pre-Islamic days when various tribes were ruling the region. This form of governmental structure has not revived the Muslims of this region. Indeed, dividing the area on nationalistic lines has obliterated any hope of progress because the rulers are all too busy trying to secure their positions. Despite the fact that the Arabian peninsular has income from oil that far exceeds even the Western countries has not resulted in any form of progress. Except the oil, there is no industry or any plans to establish one. The money that oil has brought since the 1940’s has been siphoned off to the Swiss banks accounts and Investment Houses of the Western nations. Nationalism has not elevated these states, rather, it has subjected them to the control of the Kuffar more than ever before.

 

Iran

The rise of Iranian nationalism can be traced back to the 19th Century during the infiltration of the missionary movement in the Islamic State. Since then Iran also had its share of foreign intervention, occupations and collaborations. However, the key period that need to be highlighted is the period since the eruption of the so-called ‘Islamic Revolution’ in 1979, which transformed the entire shape of the society.

The ‘Islamic Revolution’ eradicated the Iranian monarchy of the Shah and replace it with what is claimed to an Islamic system. Close examination of Iran shows that it is still very far from the system that Islam calls for. Although jilbab and khimar are common, as well as the beards and the sound of adhan, the laws that are applied still reflect non-Islam. Also, the constitution of Iran stipulates that the head of the state can only be an Iranian. This clearly contradicts Islam because tribe, race or colour are not conditions for the post of the head of the state. So the revolution in Iran has not uprooted nationalism, instead, it has further strengthen it.

 

Pakistan

Pakistan was created in 1947 be to an entity for the Muslims in the Indian subcontinent. Although the vision given to the masses was that Pakistan would be an Islamic State, in reality, Pakistan was carved-up as a secular nationalistic state. On August 11, 1947, Pakistan’s constituent assembly met in Karachi for the first time and Mohammed Ali Jinnah, who was elected to preside over the meeting, said,

“I think we should keep in front of us our ideals and you will find that in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims will cease to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of each individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the State…” 4

When a Muslim ceases to be a Muslims in the political sense, it means that Islam will not play any part in running the state, but he keeps his rituals of worships, he becomes a secular person since secularism is to divorce the deen from the state. So Jinnah’s vision of Pakistan was that of a secular nation. Furthermore, the Muslims were encouraged to rally behind a nationalistic slogan, ‘Pakistan Zindabad’ (Long live Pakistan), which is heard even to this day in Pakistan and outside.

The creation of Pakistan was meant to unify and revive the Muslims. However, this experiment was flawed right from the start as differences emerged between East and West Pakistan. Despite the fact that more than half of the Muslims in united Pakistan spoke Bengali, the ruling elites in West Pakistan adopted Urdu as the state language, Urdu being the language spoken in West Pakistan. Added to this was the fact that Bengali people were seen as an inferior race, and responsibility of governance was thus exclusively in the hands of West Pakistan. Most of the industrial development was also carried out in the Western wing and the Bengali people became very alienated.

These factors, and the campaign by India to destroy the unity of the Muslims, led to a power struggle between East and West Pakistan. At its zenith, this power struggle became the struggle of two races, namely, the ‘Pakistanis’ and the ‘Bengalis’. Nationalism reached climax in 1971 when Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto refused to relinquish power after Mujibur Rahman, from East Pakistan, won the General Elections with a slim majority. Mujibur Rahman went on to create a Bengali state called Bangladesh, thus completing the destruction of united Pakistan.

Carving-up united Pakistan on nationalistic lines did not solve any problems for the Muslims. Disunity has made the Muslims weak militarily and economically, especially Bangladesh which continues to suffer from wide-spread crippling poverty and corruption even to this day.

In summary, we can conclude that nationalism has never worked for the Muslims. It did not provide unity, progress nor harmony but created disunity, instability and dependence on foreign nations and organisations like the UN and the IMF.

 

Notes :

1. Ibid, page 10.

2. Miles Copeland, in his book The Game Player, recalls that Nasser’s involvement with the CIA began before coup d’état that ousted King Farook from power in July 1952. Subsequently, CIA assisted in the establishment of Mukhabarat (intelligence service), advised on the reorganisation of Interior Ministry and provided protection for Nasser against assassinations.

3. T.E. Lawrence is portrayed as a hero in the film Lawrence of Arabia, where he is seen as an ordinary man caught up in the conflict between the Arabs and the ‘Turks’. In reality, Lawrence was a British agent whose task was to organise revolts against the Islamic State.

4 Speeches of Quaid-i-Azam Mohammed Ali Jinnah as Govenor-General of Pakistan, Sind Observor Press, Karachi, 1948.

 

Taken from the book : ROOTS OF NATIONALISM IN THE MUSLIM WORLD

 

 

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7 thoughts on “NATIONALISM SINCE THE DISMANTLEMENT OF THE KHILAFAH STATE IN 1924

  1. Sorry I saw in a book dat d rise against d uthman caliphate by d arabs was as d book puts it ‘a form of jihad’ I’m sorry can u explain why dey tthought dis. Did d uthmani caliphate do some wrong or mistake.

    • The phrase used in the book {regarding arab movement(actually turky movement)] “a form of jihad” really a strange and ridiculous view, because it was acually a nationalist movement so how can it would be considered as jihad (Na’udhubillah) ? It helps to destroy the caliphate .

      Showing obedience to an imam has a limiation which is described by ibn taymiyyah with evidences in his book (actually compilation of his articles) “Expounds of Islam”.The last caliph of the Uthmani caliphate sultan abdul hamid didn’t crossed this limit but turkish people forgot their identity as Muslim and it was one of the problem. So they rebel agaisnt the Imam with the lebel of nationality.

      If you want to read the book then download here : http://www.4shared.com/office/XvB2gE1q/EXPOUNDS_ON_ISLAM.html
      Or if you want to read the pages about this,then give me your permission to send me screenshot of pages via mail.

      In the end, i want to share something with you frankly which i have been faced in my life and suffered for mistake with these.That is,there are many muslims who call to to islam with their “party view”,some of them are very charming in talk but mislead others (and sometime also themeselves).So always try to go first to the quran and it’s authentic tafseer and try to understand how to our sahaba practice islam.And dua is must.

      Please let me know it is useful for you or not.JAJAKALAH KHAYR.

      • Jazakumulah khayran but I didn’t mean jihad per se in dat first comment only d book made it sound good. Sorry I av other questions; 1) sorry is dis y d so called ‘arab league’ caanot help d muslims globally and dose close to dem like palestine and syria and y deir wards are sent to western schools to b ‘groomed’ d rulers wards I mean. 2) dis is on a totally new subject sorry av u ever read d book ‘confessions of a british spy’ if u av ow true is d story in dis book. 3) what’s d fate of d muslim athletes dat maybe cudnt fast in ramadan bcos of d olympics sport festival. I’ve got more questions but I wud like to keep dem for later.

      • WA JAJAKA.
        At first i want ot give thanks to Allah (ALHAMDULILLAH) that Allah give me chance to introduced with you who is one of them from ummah who is thinking the affairs of the ummah.May Allah help you to do your best and accept you.ALLAHUMMA AMEEN.

        (1) The reality is, arab leauge help us or not we do not need this types of organisation.We need a Khalifa who will govern the lands of Allah by the rulings of Allah as the khulafa rashidin did it.Because it is the order of Allah to rule the world by his kitab which should be done by a khalifah.INSHA-ALLAH Jerujalem will be conquered again and be the capital of next caliphate after it has been re-established. And know that arab leauge or any party that structured for establishing the khilafah or uniting the ummah are not the solution rather an illusion.Our PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SALLALLAHU A’LAIHU WA SALLAM) order us to keep away from all of party during the days when khilafah will no longer exist.
        I want to show you some of illusion . You may know that egyptian president Muhammad Mursi gain huge of popularity for his attractive speech and activity.One of his attractive speech that i know is “I do not need no body guard,only Allah will protect me” and one of his attractive activity is leading tarawih with slowly quran recitation.But the reality is,muslims of egypt satisfied with “his rulings”,and you also may know that they allowed bikini in their beach! Another illusion is,before some month ago,there was a news published as headline saying that new caliphate comeback in tunisia which was decleared by some of tunisian politicians who stand up for election. Gaddafi has been killed but is libya changed “for islam”?

        Know that we muslims are very far from holding the rope of Allah and practicing the sunnah.And this is reflecting at precent in various incidents.Before establishing tawhid within ourselves and in the earth,we need to understand tawhid properly.Ibn taymiyyah has an writing on the correct Understanding of tawhid and i belive it is a must read for every muslim.If anyone understand tawheed and then contain it,it must be reflect in his character.Not only the muslim athlets but also a few muslim lead their life making their desire as “lord”, what they like bring it from Islam and what they not do not like bring from their “hawa” i mean follow their their desire instead of following sunnah.you may hear about “hijab fashion” and you know that hijab is not for fashion.Recently i have been seen a news that an “islamic tv” broadcast a program where men and women are mixed (not half-half).And in another islamic tv which is world wide popular that is “peace tv”,in a conferrence bring Anwar ibrahim who gave a lecture on democracy supporting it.But these are just a “little bit” taguti things that i have been showed you here.

        Regarding to no. (3), according to the fiqh of fasting their excuse is not accepted rather it’s one of the prohibition that have been taken too lightly.Besides this, it is so ridiculious and strange that while muslim world opressed by various way then some of muslim busy with playing ! But what i want to say about these athlets (and this types of person) is that we should invite them to the guidence and we should not neglect them.We can do it face to face or via their facebook,twiter etc.We should keep running dawah as islam ordered us with right evidences according to our limitation.

        As i can’t understand no (2),sorry for it. I am not a scholar but i will feel lucky to help you (if Allah help me to help you) because Allah bind us with the bonding of Deen.(If anything that you find in my writting complex or wrong,just correct me frankly)

        JAJAKALLAH KHAYR.

  2. Jazakulumah khayran thanks for d answer. We wre far from having a real islamic state all d ones dat claim it compromise something or somewhere. Sorry I av got more questions 1) can u write in detail wat actually happened in spain I read a little dat d april fool thing was a mockery gesture towards muslims after d conquest of spain. 2) what happened to Negus of abysinnia we never hear about him after he allowed d muslims to stay. 3) can u explain d ahmadiyya creed and history to me. Thanks.

    • (1) Actually i am not sure it really happened or not because i knew another incident which was caused for april fool day.

      (2) Before proceed,please note that those who try to proof that participation in the system of kufr is allowed,they use the incident of staying Abisiniya under the ruling of Negas (Najashi).
      And you may know that Negas that mean Najashi was used as title for the king of Abisiniya (Habasa) as like pharao usesd for the king of egypt.
      The najashi to whom Rasul (sallallahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) sent his sahaba for hijrah,he (sallallahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) praised about him:
      “He is a King, under whom no one is oppressed, and his land is a land of truth.” [Ibn Hisham].
      And note that, there is a hadith of Anas bin Malik, which was reported by Muslim in his Sahih;
      “That the prophet (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) wrote to the Kisra, Qaysar, Najashi and every tyrant inviting them to Allah . But he was not the Najashi for whom the prophet (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) made the (Janazah) prayer.”
      From this hadith, it is clear the Najashi who embraced Islam, and on whom the Rasool (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) made funeral prayer is not the same Najashi to whom the Muhajireen emigrated. He is also not the same Najashi to whom the Rasool (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) sent a letter to, inviting him to Islam, between the end of the sixth year of Hijrah and the beginning of the seventh year, with Amru bin Umayyah ad-Damri. He is rather the Najashi who assumed the power in Habashah after the death of the Najashi to whom the Rasool (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) sent the letter inviting him to Islam.
      The Najashi who embraced Islam had taken power in the seventh year. This is because the Messenger (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) had sent his messengers to the kings and rulers, including the Najashi, after his return from the expedition of Hudaybiyah. This was at the end of the sixth year of the Hijrah, in the month of the Zhul Qa’dah. This Najashi would have died in the seventh year, in which the Najashi who had embraced Islam assumed power, and he was the one for whom the Messenger (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam)prayed the Salatul Janazah, and whose death was before the conquest of Makkah in the eighth year of the Hijrah, as mentioned by al-Bayhaqi in his ‘Dalaa’il an-Nubuwwah’. Hence the period of time between his assuming power, and conversion, and his death was a short time. He secretly embcraced Islam and no one knew of his conversion, not even the Messenger (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam). The Messenger (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) was informed by revelation about his death and conversion, on the day that he died, as indicated by the wording of the six ahadith in Bukhari, which he reported about his death. The short period of time that he spent as a Muslim before he died did not enable him to know the rules of Islam. As Prophet (Sallalahu A’laihi Wa Sallam) couldn’t knew about this (until revelation came to him), he couldn’t not write to him about what he should do.

      (3) A short but usefull description about ahmadiyyah (qadiyani) given by Salih al Munajjid can be found here : http://www.islamhouse.com/p/52580
      also another useful article: http://www.islamhouse.com/p/190100

      • Sorry wat den caused abysinnia to b as it is now with emergence of rastafari movement coming from there, can u pls explain d conquest of spain and ur version of d april fool genesis. Sorry dat I ask too many questions

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